Microirrigation - drip
The key feature of drip irrigation is that it keeps the soil close to its water absorption limit, i.e. constantly humid, with short and frequent water delivery cycles.
Water delivery is divided into two major groups: targeted water delivery (button droppers, drop point, capillary), in which the drop falls exactly onto the desired point; zoned water delivery (heavy dripline system, layflat hose), in which a series of holes creates a wet zone whose width and depth depend on the terrain structure, while they do not depend on the distance between plants.
These systems offer a number of further agronomic advantages, such as: ensuring an even distribution over the entire irrigated surface; keeping the soil dry between the rows, thus allowing the operation of machines; keeping the soil well ventilated, thus avoiding soil compaction and cracks; enhancing soil salinity control; enabling automation throughout all irrigation phases; enabling the installation in all types of terrains, including uneven ones.
Moreover, the system is environmentally friendly, as it does not require the chemical treatments that are typically used in pre- and post-precipitation phases; it reduces the amount of fertilisers, since distribution is performed in a constant and precise manner through fertirrigation pumps; it also requires much less power, which in turn results in a reduction of electricity or fuel costs.
Drip irrigation is recommended for vineyards, orchards, open-field vegetables and planting rows, in greenhouses and substrate cultivation, on maize and arable land.Sub-irrigation is a further development of drip irrigation.